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在人口红利因素急速转变、自动化生产需求加速释放的发展形势下,当前我国机器人产业正快速崛起并迎来爆发,各领域的“机器换人”行动正不断推进,行业转型升级趋势愈发强劲。只是,在如此的热潮涌动之下,我国机器人发展的短板却格外明显,由核心技术不足和标准建设不完善所导致的关键零部件缺失问题,正严重阻碍着国产机器人的进一步壮大。未来,掌握高品质、高精度核心零部件发展技术,研制出拥有自主知识产权的国产核心部件,将是推动我国机器人发展走向成熟的关键所在。
国内机器人产业发展态势迅猛
2014年,自政府提出《中国制造2025》行动纲领以来,我国便确立了三步走的制造强国战略。计划通过工业化和信息化的两化融合发展,到2020年巩固我国制造大国的位置,到2025年迈入制造强国行列,到2050年进入世界制造强国前列。在此过程中,自动化、智能化发展是关键所在,机器人则被寄予厚望。
受到国家战略的支持和引导,近年来我国机器人产业发展逐渐迈入快车道。不仅工业机器人连续六年位居世界最大需求和应用市场,同时工业领域的应用也在加速向服务领域延伸,让基于商用、家庭和个人的服务机器人,以及服务于军事、救援等场景的特种机器人迎来了潜力爆发和应用落地。
目前按照上行下效,国内已有20个省市地区重点发展机器人产业,相关产业园区和机器人小镇超过50余个,以广东、江苏、山东等为代表的省市展现出了强劲动力。与此同时,行业内的机器人企业数量也在急速上升,产业链相关企业已有3500余家,国产机器人企业增量明显。
今年两会期间,随着政府工作报告中提及“智能+”,人工智能与机器人的结合度进一步加深,再次为国产机器人的发展和壮大提供了利好条件。在此影响之下,未来我国机器人不仅能够在工厂自动化方面延续积极作用,同时在智能仓储、智慧物流、智能交通以及消费领域也将取得巨大成果。
受减速器等核心部件阻碍严重
不过,在机器人产业发展迎来热潮的背后,国产机器人的短板也不容忽视。虽然眼下国内已经诞生了一批如新松、埃夫特等机器人企业,逐步打破了日本、欧美等强国的市场“统治”,但是除了这部分的龙头企业外,国内多数企业依然只是混迹产业链下游,担任着组装和拼接的角色。
造成该现象的原因是国产机器人在质量与智能化程度比较欠缺,企业对市场的影响力不大,而之所以如此又是因为国产企业在机器人核心技术和关键零部件上与国外巨头存在明显差距。以减速器为例,我国生产的减速器因为质量精度不高、使用寿命不长、运行稳定性不够,使得市场更青睐日本的减速器产品。技术和市场都被国外所垄断之后,我国机器人产业的崛起便格外艰难。
而国产减速器发展所面临的困难,很大一部分来源于标准的缺失。由于国产减速器产品标准和行业标准的不够完善,导致国内产品质量和可靠性难移得到验证,产业链上的企业也不敢使用。在这样的形势下,国产机器人想要取得突破,就应当抛弃价格战、低端化的错误思维,集合政府、行业和企业三者之力,共同推进机器人关键零部件标准的建设,从而更好地规范国产机器人产业发展,以实现可持续增长。
标准推动国产减速器奋力突围
庆幸的是,在国内龙头企业和政府的共同努力之下,当前我国减速器发展奋力突围,已经在标准化建设上有了突破。
2014年5月,国家质量监督检验检疫总局、国家标准化管理委员会便发布并实施了《机器人用谐波齿轮减速器》国家标准。据了解,该标准基本涵盖了机器人用谐波齿轮减速器分类原则、技术要求、性能指标、试验方法、检验规则和包装、运输、储存等方面的内容,对谐波减速器的技术指标以及相应的技术内容进行详细规范。同时在2018年中国机器人产业大会上,由秦川集团负责起草的《机器人用精密摆线行星齿轮减速器》标准也正式发布,并在2019年1月1日起迎来了实施。
不少业内人士认为,2019年有机会成为国产RV减速器爆发的元年。一方面以“四大家族”为代表的国际势力正在面临产能供应不足的问题,我国经过多年投入和工艺积累已经具备量产实力,在本土价格优势的带动下,国产减速器的接受度正大幅提高。
另一方面国际巨头深耕中国市场也带动了产能向我国的加速转移,正在对我国行业企业带来技术、人才和供应链的重置。再加上行业标准的发布,国内市场环境的不断优化与完善,都在为国产减速器的爆发带来发展利好。
中国(广州)国际机器人、智能装备及制造技术展览会将于2019年9月26-28日在广州琶洲展馆举办,展会同期将举办多场数百人高峰论坛活动和上千人机器人峰会,汇聚国内外知名院士、专家学者和行业精英,为参观者提供最前沿的机器人产品演示。
(来源:中国智能制造网)

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