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2018年9月27至28日,由中国工业经济联合会、中国机械工业集团有限公司共同主办,国机智能科技有限公司、中国机械国际合作股份有限公司、中国电器科学研究院有限公司、广州机器人产业联盟、中国工经联工业经济研究中心联合承办“2018中国机器人产业创新峰会”在广州举行。沈阳新松机器人自动化股份有限公司总裁曲道奎发表了《机器人赋能智能制造发展》的主题报告。以下为部分报告内容:

一、机器人与智能制造的关系

机器人我们如何来赋能智能制造?通过这个图我们可以看到智能制造,它的上面更多的我们要有智能产品和智能服务,工业互联网如何来进行连接?再往上走,我们要有一个整个的智能制造云和大数据,这样构成新型的制造系统,在这个制造系统里面还有两个要素,一个是小批量、定制化、多品种,这个是新的智能制造的需求。另外一个要素看它的特征数字化、网络化、智能化,构成智能制造。一个是需求端,海外是输出。如何来输出智能制造,智能制造要做什么事情?智能制造里面很大部分是智能作业,智能作业用什么来完成呢?智能制造另外一方面是智能物流,通过智能物流来形成智能制造的血液等等。支撑智能作业和智能物流的是什么东西呢?一个是我们现在的工业机器人、工业机器手和工业机器臂来完成我们人完成的动作。

另外一个是智能物流,用什么来支撑?我们称之为移动机器人,机器人和智能制造是什么逻辑关系?为什么智能制造需要机器人?传统的制造是否需要机器人?最后我们看一下没有机器人的话无法构建智能制造系统。说到这里,我们又有一个概念需要澄清的,就是工业机器人也好,移动机器人也好,跟我们过去大家想象的或者我们现在大家看到的是不是一类东西?就是这里需要的工业机器人,移动机器人同样前面要加两个字,传统的工业机器人完不成我们的需求、定制化,也跟数字化、网络化、智能化没有关系。新的机器人系统才能支撑智能制造大体系。

机器人是制造强国-国之重器。这里面包括新一代信息技术、航空航天装备、新能源汽车、轨道交通装备等等。在这里面机器人已经成为了一个使能技术,不是传统的机器设备,彻底要在整个智能机器人的关系和作用非常重要。

因为机器人的重要性,所以机器人现在是全球智能制造竞争的一个重要的焦点,这里面不光是中国,过程我们叫中国制造2025,现在是制造强国成为十大领域之一,我们就可以看到机器人的普遍性以及在中国需要换人,产业转型升级,机器人的共性作为未来的重要支撑作用。

习近平总书记在两次已经提到了机器人,一是在两个院士大会上,关键技术要不来,买不来,讨不来。不仅要把我国机器人水平提出上去,而且还要尽可能多地占领市场,这是对机器人进行了战略定位。中国必须抢占机器人核心技术制高点。所以现在关键的东西就是成为我们中国未来智能化以及其他另外一个重要的支撑技术。

机器人驱动智能制造。制造模式变革、战争模式的变革以及未来生活方式的变革,所以机器人作为一种使命技术不仅仅是在制造业,从制造业到我们的生活到未来的国防安全,机器人在这里面都起了一个颠覆的作用。智能制造是新的制造模式,从整个制造体系架构到新的需要支撑要素,跟过去传统人和现在的机器没有关系。所以机器换人和智能制造几乎没有关系。

二、中国机器人技术进展

机器人不可能外部像人一模一样,但是从它的行为能力和智能角度会比较强。机器人的1.0时代,在这个里面机器人的定义,这个就是我们可以预先来编程的,具有预编程控制的多自由度设备。存在一个结构化的环境中系统长时间的运行,强调的是效率、生产率、质量及可靠性。机器人的发展往往人的行为和机器发展,更多强调是人的协作和协同。因此要面对非结构环境,对环境的不确定性有一定的自主适应能力,强调的是感知与智能。

机器人技术发生了巨大的变化,机器人1.0时代支撑机器人的技术可能就是器械、电、控制三大技术。今天的机器人,大家可以看到,任意你想象,几乎把我们现在有的高新技术全部融合在一起,包括大家熟悉的,大数据、AI、IOT、云计算等等,也包括新型材料、新的信息技术、感知系统等等。我们能够想到的,几乎在机器人这个技术大的体系里面都融合在一起,因此我们说的机器人技术本身就是一个生态。不是过去简单的器械设备,因此我们机器人技术的改变导致了机器人本身巨大的变化,否则我们今天的机器人,世界各国不会把机器人作为一个国家战略,也不会作为未来整个国家发展的重要平台,原因就是机器人从技术层面发生了巨大的改变。因此我和我们在座搞机器人以及搞机器人产品、产业的要把握机器人新的发展方向。而未来的方向,更多是往认知智能,包括决策、情感、感知、深度学习等等。

具体来讲,在2.0时代,我们协作机器人成为了这个时代的工业机器人一个新一代机器人的代表,包括汽车、装备、复合机器人等等,典型特征就是网络数据的融合加上环境的适应性,对人机智能的安全性,使我们的新松器人进入到人机协作的时代。这里面包括我们单臂的等等,也包括各种不同的,包括这里面的这些功能,大家都可以看到。所以有很多是过去机器人不具备的,过去机器人的要求安全上不具备人机协作的能力,必须要机器人跟人要分离了,因此导致了整个生产模式人和机不可能两个优势的协同。

再有一种就是很多作业靠单臂很难完成,为什么有双手,就是双臂的协作协同,现在机器人也是这样的,我们也是有不同的双臂机器人完成双臂作业。从机器人的安全性、交互方式等等发生了巨大的变化,这里面要人机协作、协同以及视角方式等等。

蛇形臂机器人,前面有视觉性,避障,在狭小、恶劣、危险的环境里面作业。这跟我们过去传统的机器人完全不一样的机器人。这个是机器人跟文化、艺术深度融合。

大家都知道北京冬奥会8分钟,我们是把机器人最新的技术和特点全面融合在一起。由有24台机器人,智能移动机器人和24个舞蹈演员,18套舞蹈动作如何融合在一起,声光电以及克服地面的滑动,加上人和机器人相互干扰,这里面就包括我们感知系统,刚刚说的大数据、云平台的控制以及IOT,真正一个互联的功能。把能用上的技术都在这里面用上了,最大的难度是就是这样的。最后我们依然不辱使命,完成了机器人与艺术的深度融合,为世界呈现了完美高科技的盛宴。

小结:机器人的发展趋势。

1、机器人由“机器”向“机器人”进化,有三性。第一灵活性,机器人没有灵活性就是回到机器的概念。第二叫灵巧性,要有非常好的操作能力,如果没有操作能力不叫机器人。第三叫智能性,感知、学习、决策能力,所以现在机器人的发展几乎沿着这三个方向在同时发展。

2、AI赋能机器人智能的快速提升。因为现在AI技术快速发展, AI对机器人进行了快速智能的赋能。现在真正机器人发展的瓶颈是什么?智能的机器人发展受到制约。应用机器人的发展不在智能上,现在的智能是机器人可以完成非常多的工作,但机器人在我们人类领域是一个空白。所以现在的服务机器人都在吹概念和吹泡沫。为什么?技术支撑的问题。

3、机器人本体能力成为发展的瓶颈。机器人怎么服务行为和技术,机器人解决不了。机器人解决的是识别,它的识别比我们人类精准多。另外一个是语音,可以给你讲故事、唱歌和做各种新闻,但是这些是虚拟、数字化,不是行为。所以机器人真正制约他发展的,是本体,本体技术不发展,机器人永远成不了机器人。

4、机器人赋能智能制造的发展。人工智能机器人本身就是相互促进、互相关联的领域技术,而且两者之间缺一不可,在大的生态和大的平台相互发展,需要我们对机器人要有一个更全面的认识和了解。

 

(来源于中国机器人产业创新峰会纪要)

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嗨,需要帮助就来找我吧!