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如今,随着大数据的发展、机器算法技术、机器学习能力的不断提升,全球人工智能产业进入了新一轮的爆发期,万物互联和万物智能正加快实现。芯片作为计算机或其他电子设备的重要组成部分,其广阔的应用前景和多元化应用价值也受到了多方关注,许多国家为了在科技领域获得更多发展机会,都将芯片视为了布局的重点内容。

多重利好因素综合作用,中国“芯”发展迅猛

近几年,我国高度重视人工智能芯片产业的发展,先后发布了一系列产业支持政策。2018年发布的《人工智能标准化白皮书(2018版)》中就宣布要成立国家人工智能标准化总体组、专家咨询组,负责全面统筹规划和协调管理我国人工智能标准化工作。

在人工智能和芯片行业同时作为国家级战略的背景下,我国AI 芯片产业进入了发展的关键时期。除了政策以外,资本推动是AI芯片高速发展的另一个重要因素。大量资本的投入,加速了AI 芯片的研发过程,并使 AI 芯片市场得以进一步拓展。

近两年,随着消费电子、智慧医疗、可穿戴设备等领域对于芯片需求量的不断增多,老牌芯片企业纷纷加快了研制新款芯片的速度。在政策、资本、企业等多方的共同推动下,我国国内AI芯片市场发展迅猛,产品迭代升级的速度也不断加快。

由于各国的产业基础和政策环境等并不完全相同,因而各国的芯片产业发展也各具特色。从全球范围内各大人工智能芯片企业的产品布局情况来看,国外半导体巨头布局的人工智能芯片种类十分丰富,几乎各个芯片种类都有涉及。

放眼国内,大部分人工智能芯片企业都是新创企业,这些企业在人工智能芯片领域的布局速度相对较慢,芯片产品的研制也主要集中在ASIC、类脑和DSP领域,如寒武纪主打ASIC芯片,中星微电子在DSP芯片领域有所研究。就近几年刚刚兴起的类脑芯片而言,西井科技有所涉足。此外,还有一些企业也根据自身的实际状况,推出了多款芯片。

国内企业积极进军芯片领域,专用AI芯片研发提速

2018年,是芯片产业发展取得众多成果的一年,不管是传统芯片制造商,还是初创企业,都在提升芯片的性能和计算密度等方面做出了诸多尝试。截至目前,华为、百度、阿里巴巴等企业都加入了芯片赛道,并致力于生产出更多低功耗、高性能的产品。在激烈的市场竞争环境下,各企业正加紧对FPGA芯片、ASIC芯片等某些行业专用芯片的研制。

当前,随着我国通信、电子产品制造业等产业的快速发展,各领域建设对于芯片的需求量也不断增多,这就促使着芯片制造商立足不同用户的实际需求,去进行产品研发和生产。ASIC芯片作为一种全定制的芯片,运行效率较高,单芯片成本较低,其实际应用状况和发展前景也受到多方关注。

随着边缘运算的需求不断增加,ASIC芯片的需求量也明显攀升。有研究人员认为,到2025年,ASIC芯片在整个芯片市场的占率将有望超过50%。ASIC芯片之所以受到青睐,原因就在于新兴的深度学习处理器架构多以图形(Graph)或Tensorflow为基础架构。

从整体来看,人工智能目前主流使用的三种专用芯片分别是GPU,FPGA和ASIC。从性能、面积、功耗等多个方面来看,ASIC都优于GPU和FPGA,因此从长期来看,无论在云端还是在终端,ASIC都代表着AI芯片的未来。目前,包括微软、谷歌、英特尔等在内的科技巨头都在ASIC领域投入了大量的人力物力,并希望能在该领域抢占更多发展机遇,并获取较为丰厚的市场收益。

可以看出,在全球各大科技巨头都积极参与的智能芯片竞赛中,我国政府与企业正努力争取一席之地,以期在激烈的市场竞争中获取竞争优势。因此,我们有理由相信,在不久的将来,我国的人工智能芯片研发实力将得到进一步增强,一些束缚人工智能芯片产业发展的难题也将一一得到解决。在整个芯片产业的发展上,我国终将绽放光彩,在世界核心科技舞台上赢得应有的地位。

(转自智能制造网)

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