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多年来,中国一直是全球头号工业机器人应用市场,也是工业机器人增长最为迅速的市场之一。记者近日与深交所一起走访调研多家机器人行业上市公司,了解行业发展现状以及未来趋势。业内人士指出,目前国产工业机器人产品与国际水平还有一定差距,但核心零部件的关键技术正在逐步赶超,工业机器人的国产化替代正在加速。未来中国工业机器人产业有望继续保持高速增长。

国内技术逐步赶超
从结构上看,工业机器人由减速器、伺服电机、控制器、本体四大部件构成。但技术难度最高的前三大部件,近年来多被外资企业垄断,国内机器人整机制造在关键部件配套方面严重受制于人。目前,这一现状正逐步改变。
业内人士介绍,目前国内具有自主研发和生产控制器、伺服电机、减速器等机器人核心零部件的厂商并不多。随着国家大力扶持和市场需求激增,越来越多的国产商异军突起。目前,中国已将突破机器人关键核心技术作为重要战略,国内厂商已攻克减速器、伺服电机等关键核心零部件领域的部分难题。
以埃斯顿为例,公司是为数不多的具有控制器、交流伺服、减速器等机器人核心零部件自主知识产权的国产厂商,生产的各类核心部件产品广泛应用在自动化控制领域,市占率在国产品牌中均名列前茅。
“经过多年的研发和投入,公司的工业机器人及智能制造系统产品在焊接、码垛、上下料、折弯等领域具有明显的优势。部分产品如折弯机器人及其工作单元,技术已达到国际领先水平。”埃斯顿董事长吴波告诉记者。
新时达在机器人本体的控制与驱动技术上具有自主知识产权,自主研发了六自由度工业机器人、SCARA、网络型伺服系统等创新产品。公司董事长纪翌介绍,公司的SCARA机器人对标的是国际品牌,自产的机器人本体今年上半年销售数量已突破千台,确立了在国内机器人与运动控制行业的技术领先地位。
“目前核心零部件的关键技术正在取得重大突破,部分实现了小批量的行业应用,减轻产业核心零部件的对外依赖性。”国内某减速器厂家负责人表示,这既能降低国产机器人的成本,也将打破国外品牌的制约。
资本市场作用显现
借助资本市场的推动作用,部分公司成功募资扩建生产线,抢占市场规模和话语权;有的公司兼并收购业务协同企业,布局产业链和行业前沿技术。在带动业绩、技术、规模等提高的同时,推动中国工业机器人产业快速增长。
如新时达发行可转债成功募集资金8.8亿元。“从未来发展趋势看,公司机器人产品产能不足,可转债募投项目之一就是为了解决公司机器人产品产能不足的问题。”公司有关负责人表示。
埃斯顿2016年通过定增融资9.5亿元,用于机器人智能制造系统研发和产业化、机器人智能化工厂升级改造等项目。“目前公司机器人本体产能大约在2000套/年,在手订单充足,但出现产能紧张的情况。公司已为快速扩张的市场做好了产能准备,正在建设中的180亩工业机器人和智能制造产业园产能规划为15000套机器人。”埃斯顿董事长吴波介绍。
在提升产能的同时,埃斯顿今年完成了全资收购英国TRIO、控股德国M.A.i.、参股美国BARRETT公司等多项海外投资并购,提前布局行业前沿技术,并开发了基于TRIO控制器+ESTUN伺服系统的运动控制完整解决方案。
不少机器人企业借助资本市场构建了完整的产业链布局。今年6月,新时达以4.05亿元收购了以研发、制造及销售伺服驱动器及其他运动控制系统产品起家的之山智控,贯通了智能制造装备领域控制层、驱动层、执行层、设备层、工程应用等各个物理层,打造“核心部件—本体—应用—信息化”的完整产业链发展格局。
此外,科大智能去年相继收购了永乾机电、华晓精密及冠致自动化,完成了“智能移载机械臂(手)—AGV(脚)—柔性生产线(身)”于一体的完整产业链布局。
高速增长将延续
近两年,工业机器人下游需求火爆,本体生产制造商规模日益增大,带动了国产核心零部件厂商的发展;而核心零部件的突破,有利于本体厂商降低成本,进一步促进工业机器人的行业应用,形成良性循环。
在此情况下,核心零部件国产化趋势显现,国产工业机器人在市场总销量中的比重稳步提高。“随着国内技术的不断成熟,国产工业机器人的占比将进一步提升。”科远股份董秘赵文庆认为。
科大智能总裁杨锐俊表示,目前中国自主研发的汽车车身柔性焊装自动生产线已打破这一高端领域由国外公司垄断的局面,未来市场占比有望进一步提高。
不过,多位业内人士指出,零部件国产替代面临的问题一方面是市场占有率较低,另一方面则是质量可靠性与稳定性仍有待提高,尤其是机器人的高阶算法上与德国、日本等国际行业巨头还有一定差距。
一位大型上市公司高管表示,公司目前给高端客户设计的完整解决方案中,采购的工业机器人核心零部件主要来自外资企业。“我们无法承受自身产品方案与采购的国产产品之间质量和性能问题叠加可能引发的风险。除非客户明确要求国产化,在核心零部件上我们仍倾向于采购外资企业产品。”
不过,该人士表示,国产工业机器人产品具有较高的价格优势,应用于中低端制造业领域的规模越来越大。“国内庞大的中低端制造业市场规模为国产工业机器人发展提供了机遇。加上高端领域局面逐渐打开,未来中国工业机器人产业将继续保持高速增长。”
据国家统计局最新数据,今年1-10月中国工业机器人产量达到10.48万台,同比增长68.9%,继续保持高速增长。
“未来至少三年,中国工业机器人产业的复合年增长率将不低于30%。”上述高管表示。
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