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据媒体报道,工信部目前正在制定行业准入条件,以提高准入门槛,严控工业机器人高端产业低端化和低端产品产能过剩风险。
机器人大量使用,是近年来制造业企业转型升级的突出特点。统计显示,自2013年成为世界最大工业机器人市场后,我国工业机器人使用量大幅攀升。2014年全国销售工业机器人超5.7万台,增长54%;2015年销量增至6.8万台;2016年机器人安装量更是高达8.5万台,超过全球新增工业机器人数量的30%。
专业机构预测,2017年我国工业机器人销量将达10.2万台,累计保有量将接近45万台,本土机器人企业的市场占有率从2012年的不足5%,增至2017年的30%以上;2020年,我国工业机器人保有量将达80万台以上,潜在市场需求价值近5000亿元。
今年4月,工信部发布了《机器人产业发展规划(2016—2020年)》(以下简称《规划》)。根据该《规划》,2020年中国国产品牌的工业机器人年产量目标为10万台。目前,工业机器人已广泛服务于国民经济37个行业大类,91个行业中类。2016年,3C(计算机、通信设备和其他电子设备)制造业和汽车制造业,在国产工业机器人销售总量中占比分别为30%和12.6%。
转型升级带来的巨大需求,造成了行业出现过热的苗头。据统计,国内重点发展机器人产业的省份有20多个,机器人产业园区40余个。近两年,机器人企业数量从不到400家迅速增至800余家,而产业链相关企业超3400家。其中,仅浙江机器人企业数量就有280余家。赛迪研究院装备所所长左世全坦言:“我国机器人产业存在一定程度的过热,低水平重复建设、盲目上马的现象在部分地区的确存在。”
工业和信息化部副部长辛国斌近日表示,机器人领域高端产业低端化和低端产品产能过剩的风险,已经引起了有关部门高度重视。
有专家指出,中国工业机器人行业中,国外品牌占据了中国工业机器人市场60%以上份额,技术复杂的六轴以上多关节机器人,国外公司市场份额约90%;作业难度大、国际应用最广泛的焊接领域,国外机器人占84%;高端应用集中的汽车行业,国外公司占90%份额。2016年,国产品牌的工业机器人销量达到2.2万台,市场占有率为32.5%,首次突破三成。而在2013年,国产品牌的工业机器人市场占有率仅为25%,其余的市场份额为发那科、ABB以及安川电机等外资机器人企业所斩获。
尽管近年来,我国企业虽然在机器人核心部件精密减速器、伺服电机等研发上取得了“点”的突破,并已投产,但我国企业在机器人核心技术方面还有很大差距,可靠性仍需持续提升。此外,对焊接、手术医疗等复杂技术的掌握很不够,尤其在感知和控制技术、人机交互技术等方面,需加速追赶。
专家指出,如何由数量、速度型转变为质量、内涵型,是当前本土机器人产业发展最大的问题。以广东东莞为例,该地区从事与机器人产业相关企业超200家,但大多数或购买国外设备集成,或采购国外核心零部件组装,有知识产权的不到1/3。
低端产能过剩,也与各地政府的补贴有关。据赛迪研究院、中国机器人产业联盟等单位调查发现:不少地方政府部门或通过补贴用户间接支持,或对机器人生产企业直接给予技改资金、股权投资、首台套保费补助等资金扶持。这些地方扶持政策在推动产业发展的同时,也会诱发导致重复建设、恶性竞争等问题,导致企业产品质量参差不齐,削弱了用户使用自主机器人的信心。
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