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十九大报告
加快建设制造强国,加快发展先进制造业,推动互联网、大数据、人工智能和实体经济深度融合,在中高端消费、创新引领、绿色低碳、共享经济、现代供应链、人力资本服务等领域培育新增长点、形成新动能。支持传统产业优化升级,加快发展现代服务业,瞄准国际标准提高水平。促进我国产业迈向全球价值链中高端,培育若干世界级先进制造业集群。

十九大报告关于加快培育若干世界级先进制造业集群的战略部署,对促进中国制造质量新提升、引领中国生产方式新变革、挖掘中国经济增长新动能意义重大,有利于到新中国成立一百年时,顺利实现把我国建设成为引领世界制造业发展的制造强国战略目标。智能制造在全球范围内快速发展,已成为制造业重要发展趋势,对产业发展和分工格局带来深刻影响,事关制造强国战略的实现。从智能装备行业的区域竞争格局来看,目前,国内的智能制造装备主要分布在工业基础较为发达的地区。在政策东风吹佛下,我国正在形成珠三角、长三角、环渤海和中西部四大产业集区,产业集群将进一步提升各地智能制造的发展水平。

智能制造前景一片大好,四大产业聚集区正在形成
据《2016-2017中国智能制造年度发展报告》显示,我国正在形成珠三角、长三角、环渤海和中西部四大产业集聚区,将进一步提升各地智能制造的发展水平。其中,环渤海地区和长三角地区是装备制造的核心区。以数控机床为核心的智能制造装备产业的研发和生产企业主要分布在环渤海地区、长三角地区及西北地区,其中以辽、鲁、京、沪、苏、浙和陕等地区最为集中。
此外,关键基础零部件及通用部件、智能专用装备产业在豫、鄂、粤等地区也都呈现较快的发展态势,其中以洛阳、襄樊、深圳最为突出。同时,工业机器人将是未来智能装备发展的一个新热点,京、沪、粤、苏将是国内工业机器人应用的主要市场。

图:我国智能制造装备产业分布情况

具体来看,珠三角、长三角作为我国制造业的核心区,在推动智能制造方面担当主角。珠三角地区占据控制系统优势,广州数控是国内技术领先的专业成套机床数控系统供应商,年产销数控系统占国内同类产品市场的1/2份额。此外,珠三角地区的智能制造装备产业已在人力资源、科技、资本等生产要素市场、产业配套能力和政策支撑等方面具备较为雄厚的基础,初步显现智能制造装备产业集聚发展特征。
长三角地区以江苏、上海和浙江为核心区域,优势在于电子信息技术产业基础雄厚。目前三省市依据各自的产业和科技基础优势,已培育了一批优势突出、特色鲜明的智能制造装备产业集群。随着《长江三角洲城市群发展规划》的发布、指引,长三角将加快形成集智能设计、智能产品、智能装备和智能技术及服务于一体的全产业链。
环渤海地区以辽东半岛和山东半岛为核心区域,以北京、哈尔滨、沈阳为代表,科研实力较强。研究机构有中科院沈阳自动化研究所、哈工大、北航等,在机器人方面取得显著科研成果,具有人才培养优势。且有沈阳新松、哈工大机器人、哈博实等行业龙头企业,带动培育了一批智能制造装备产业集群。
以武汉、长沙、重庆为代表的中西部集聚区,智能装备产业虽起步晚。但依托外部的科技资源,在机器人领域已形成优势且增势强劲,涌现出埃夫特等行业龙头企业。
机器人产业园区最为热门

根据前瞻产业研究院统计,2016年,我国在建或者已经建成的智能制造产业园区的数量为158个。虽然之前也有许多产业园区已经销声匿迹,但是像深圳光明等地的小型机器人产业园已经开始逐步建立,总体园区数量情况呈现出上升的趋势。

图:2016年中国智能制造产业园区区域分布

智能制造产业园区的快速发展得益于本身的优势,园区的优势在于其可构建集“科技研发+产业苗圃+孵化器+加速器+推广应用”于一体的服务体系,并且能提供风投、融资等公共服务平台。全产业链研发让园区企业不再孤身奋战,而是强强联手。纵观智能制造整体市场,近年来越来越多的智能制造企业在园区中搭建了自己的生产研发基地,园区的建设也如雨后春笋快速吸引了大批生产企业。中国智能制造产业的爆发式增长,不仅激发了业内外资金的投资热情,也使得各地形成建设智能制造产业园区的热潮。

就但从机器人产业园区来分析,目前,全国已有超过40个机器人产业园在建或已建成,许多省份更是有多个产业园落地,如江苏省就有昆山、张家港、南京、常州及徐州5座城市“配备”机器人产业园。有28个省市将机器人及关键零部件作为重点行业,不少产业园更是雄心勃勃地提出年产值数百亿人民币的目标。
2016年,我国智能制造产业园区最为主要的园区类型为机器人产业园区,其产业园区数量占总体智能制造产业园区数量的31.01%;其次为综合型园区,其产业园区数量占总体智能制造产业园区数量的23.42%。总体来看,我国智能制造产业园区仍然以机器人产业园区为主。

图:2016年中国智能制造产业园区类型分布

政策密集出台 打造智能制造装备产业集聚区
当前,全国各地纷纷出台相应的国家政策,推动智能制造的发展。近年来,我国出台了一系列旨在促进智能制造发展的文件和措施,为智能制造发展和制造业转型升级创造了宽松良好的政策环境。目前,这一整套成型的政策体系正在持续释放政策红利,大量企业开始主动拥抱智能制造,我国制造业迈向高端化的趋势也日益明显。随着后续各项针对性措施的不断落地,我国智能制造水平有望不断提升,制造业强国战略和制造业转型升级的大目标也将得以稳步推进。
其中,工信部发布的《智能制造发展规划(2016-2020年)》提出,到2020年,研制60种以上智能制造关键技术装备,达到国际同类产品水平,国内市场满足率超过50%。《智能制造工程实施指南(2016-2020)》等产业扶持政策陆续颁布,推动产业加速发展。
与此同时,多地都在加快智能制造的发展,结合地方特色,打造智能产业集群。一些自主创新能力强、主业突出、产品市场前景好、对产业带动作用大的智能制造大型骨干企业在各地崛起,不断形成智能制造企业集群和产业集群。
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