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核心零部件最值得关注的是关节减速器,其成本占比最高,技术难度最高,毛利率最高,作为目前国产减速机,目前几家大的生产商产品与市场究竟如何?和相关国际竞品相比,优劣势到底在哪?国产核心零部件目前再往前一步的难点到底在哪?目前减速器流行的低价换市场策略是否能够打破国产销量的怪圈?本文从这几个角度揭秘中国核心零部件问题。

政策与研发

机器人核心零部件国产化一直是国家重视的趋势,也是和许多人期待和想到的,中国一定要走会的走一条路,但从宏观上,解决核心零部件的问题,难点都是不断随着研究出现的,政策和资金支持成效反而很小。

工业市场的圈子不大不小,来来去去也总是那么一群熟人,机器人也一样。能够稳定影响国家政策,传递商业方向的,也就那么一群人,而真正落地去执行,去研究落地以及进入市场的,又往往不是那批人,这就导致了产业和研究分开的脱节。

对于核心零部件企业来说,虽然很大程度上资金支持受到政策方向影响,国家加强相关政策支持对于企业无疑能够更有支撑力,但企业又不能只是依赖于政策,还是要更多地集中力量解决核心零部件本身技术的矛盾。核心零部件企业都希望国家的支持能够持续,并且有针对性能够加大相关投入,例如国产零部件从起步发展,所面临的难度从原材料难度,到加工装备问题,再到装配技术,再到产品评价和试验,随着中国企业不断学习和研究,这些问题才逐步得到了解决,经过7-8年时间,才有了如今有所成绩的核心零部件。

从目前市场上的整体零部件情况来看,原先这些很关键的技术难题,如今已经都不是生产企业大的问题,都随着时间和研究的深入不断得到了解决。问题更多在于受到宏观经济的影响,大政策落地到应用端角度的关注仍然不太够,需要靠着企业自身探索,导致企业在零部件行业同质化应用非常严重,企业产品的差距并不大,很容易形成恶性竞争。

但如果政策和行业领导上,能够有更加强有力牵头面向应用领域,面向市场,让企业针对性的进行性能的调整和优化,每个机器人产业有专业且差异化的东西,无疑更符合机器人行业的市场化整体进程。

 

市场与研发

核心零部件是机器人企业绕不过去的坎,谈到国产机器人,核心零部件无不被人吐槽。而国产零部件虽然大家口头都表示支持,但企业却多还是认为国产核心零部件目前仍然处于上升期,为了更保证产品质量稳定品质,国产机器人毫无意外的会去选择国外零部件,这也使得国产零部件的市场试验举步维艰。

同时,虽然大家都很看好国产零部件的市场空间,并对此保持了非常大的期许,但是目前正处于是国产核心零部件跌宕起伏上浮的过程,阻碍其进一步上升的关键点在于国产品牌量的支撑有限,“大家不愿意用”导致了目前核心零部件的困难还是在于市场的不稳定性和波折。

如何攻克市场上升期的这个认知难关,是非常多想要追上和赶超国际水平的核心零部件企业遇到的最大瓶颈。如何突破量和市场应用,破开市场面,让机器人的核心零部件领域更深入,专业化程度更高一些,是目前要解决的一个难点。针对机器人的关注度和投入程度,市场化动作没有达到原来的效果,后续的研发会愈发困难。

但相对而言,目前国内的机器人零部件企业在做的是更接地气,至少在文化差异以及产品售后上,国产的地理优势立马需要能得到体现。中国这个庞大的市场,无疑才是国产核心零部件最大的优势,无论市场如何,坚持做产品,打磨质量,差距一定会越来越小,而凭借着本土企业在对于市场和产品本身理解的巨大切合度,无疑核心零部件企业和国产机器人企业的配合和针对性专注度也将越来越高,也容易赶平和国外的差距。

 

对标国外

机器人四大家一直是机器人行业从业者心中的一道槛,也是国产核心零部件的一道坎。国产与四大家产品可以比喻为小船和航空母舰的区别,但其实这更多的是在市场体量上。目前,减速器市场,玩家主要就两家日本企业,哈默纳科是谐波减速器的龙头,博纳是RV减速器龙头,两个占据了高端减速器75%以上的市场份额,处于非常强势的地位,举例四大家族依托长期合作关系,拿货价格是中国客户的一半,而博纳给中国客户减速器售价就是其他客户的2倍。

但在工艺上而言,国内的相关技术,例如在精加工,热处理,在实际的市场应用上,配合人员对于工艺的专注度其实力并不弱,因此国内的零部件目前与国外的零部件其实核心差距并不大,反而因为能够降低运输和组装等多方面的投入,因此相对而言国产核心零部件体现出来的优势就在于价格和市场。

因此国产与进口品牌的差距和不足还是存在,但不是在根本性的工艺差距,更需要的是大市场量的支撑,从而弥补在过往时间里国外品牌积累的关于市场的更多应用软件功能和方向,从而针对市场的广泛应用面,不断提升在个行业应用内的核心工艺。
RV减速器,南通振康、双环传动也都获得万台级订单(2018.3双环传动——埃夫特10000台,2018年南通振康——上海欢颜、埃夫特18000台),说明国产品牌在逐步获得信任,因此其研发之路仍然任重而道远。

 

价格战不可取

因为目前的世界经济情况以及行业的不景气,中国机器人销售额也出现了增长放缓,但这并不是主要方向,国产的减速机市场无疑还是会上升,因为国产机器人想要真正取得发展还是需要国产零部件。目前虽然存在波动,但是长远看来,对于机器人的核心零部件生产和继续增长的趋势,零部件的生产商依然非常看好。

双环传动董事张靖之前接受采访时就曾表示:“机器人的减速机市场一定还是一个增长趋势,这不是乐观的预测,更多的是产品本身的性质和制造成本决定的,随着国内(零部件和机器人制造)企业合作程度加深,国产零部件的优势会越来越大,但是需要稳定目前的产品体系,而不是盲目冲量和降价,国产不要陷入价格竞争,而要极力去回避和抵制。”

因此目前看来,产品品质是第一,国产企业在中国市场最大的优势是要卖产品和服务,更注重品质和品牌,更注重未来的情况。同时用技术和产品服务挖掘出更有潜力的客户,做高性价比,本分做好产品,对于高品质还是要坚持。

成本、服务、品质的三大马车,才是国产核心零部件能够逐渐在和国外的核心零部件保持竞争态势的关键因素!而价格战对于机器人市场是损人不利己的事情,但市场又是检验产品的唯一标准,生存是硬道理,因此机器人市场的瓶颈,还是在于企业市场观,不愿意用国产,是意识形态下很大的问题。

 

人才需要有前景

关于机器人核心零部件的人才难题同样是阻碍行业发展的重要原因,各地都在提招工难,这是针对高级人才不争的事实。而作为高尖端精密机械生产和研发,这一批人才,中国是如何在这么多年培养和积累下来的?同时目前机器人专业最近火爆异常,后续零部件的研发人才缺口是否会因此更加容易弥补?

绿的谐波、聚隆科技、同川科技、南通振康、双环传动这些国产核心零部件企业的佼佼者,无疑研发人才占比都很高,虽然减速机的产品是近年来才开始研究,早期的对口人才几近于无,更多是人才自身的成长,靠着企业内部培养和锻炼,这也因此看出优秀企业,不仅是在于技术,更多的还是在于如何通过人才培养,实现更多的技术和人才跃进。包括在设计和工艺,制造管理等方面的人才,几乎都是随着企业一路成长。

虽然目前高校对此的招人一波比一波热烈,但是高校的人才想要满足企业生产要求,需要在掌握基础知识的前提下,根据能力再到企业进行针对性培养和再学习,而目前的交叉学科理论,能够给学生和企业都会带来更深刻的认识,因此最后核心零部件研发和生产的相关人才,最终还是需要回到企业,沉得下来耐得住寂寞,才是机器人行业的关键要点,最后回到产业研发本身,用市场情况和实际生产的经验积累才能带动研发。

 

结语

经济大背景贸易战仍不乐观,工业增速放缓情况下,工业机器人行业仍然暂时处于低谷,核心零部件需求也会受到影响,一旦核心零部件真正宣布得到突破,也很可能面临外企的价格降维打压,到底如何把握核心零部件的市场,对于绿的谐波、聚隆科技、同川科技、南通振康、双环传动这些国产核心零部件企业的佼佼者,仍然是一个不小的挑战。

 

文章来源:中国机器人网 刘众楷

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