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这家老工厂是巡礼中国重工产业时必到的纪念堂,历时70年,它将如何在经济雾霾下寻找新希望?

东搬西建后,沈机集团搬迁到沈阳经济开发区,老旧的工厂全部拆除,建起了现代化的工厂   门口摆放着“中华人民共和国第一台机床”的提示,但这家曾经为共和国建设立下汗马功劳的企业,已经风采不在。
2016年3月21日下午5点,在沈阳机床有限责任公司的办公楼里,董事长关锡友刚从一个闭门会上下来,刚刚过去的几个小时里,他和北京来的专家、市里领导聊了一下午。关锡友并没有透露会议的更多细节,但脸色有些沉重。近几年东北经济断崖式下滑,沈阳制造业更是重灾区。沈机集团的日子也不好过。
“形势不好了就都来把脉,其实,我们一直在跟着国家的战略方向走。咋整?我们也在想办法。除了核心技术实力,啥都白扯。我们需要充分的自主权。”关锡友说。
最后一句是东三省很多大国企领导的心里话,只是似乎没几个人会如此公开讲出来。这个说话口吻带着浓重东北口音的辽宁人,已经在这家老国企工作了近30年。关锡友的无奈不无道理,这个曾让一家几辈人为之骄傲的国企,现在正广受诟病。
2015年,沈机集团下属上市公司陷入亏损,母公司不得不输血相救。
是什么让两三年前还创造了世界第一销售额的企业,一夜之间如此衰落?
答案在风中飘摇。
城市名片
在机床行业,沈机集团在计划经济时代的地位难寻其右。计划经济年代中国机床行业“十八罗汉”这家企业占了三家,沈阳市因为这家企业的存在而被称为“中国机床之乡”。
在过去的半个世纪的时间里,很多技术工人,甚至名校大学生都以挤进这家企业为荣。关锡友1988年从上海同济大学机械专业毕业后来到了沈机集团。他说,最开始他在中捷友谊厂当过5年的工人,车、钻、镗、铣都干过。
“我父亲也在机床厂工作,建国之前入厂的,当时,车钳铣是最好的工作。沈阳那时还流传着一句话,‘车钳铣,没法比’。”杨师傅说。杨是一名一线的老工人,1983年,杨师傅子承父业,刚刚19岁就进了机床三厂。
在没有东搬西建之前,沈阳的重工企业基本都在铁西区的北二路上。因此这条路也被称为重工一条街。90年代之前,正值北二路的鼎盛时期,马路两侧聚集了机床一厂、机床三厂、锅炉总厂、变压器厂、冶炼厂、重型机器厂等37家大型企业。这时,在沈阳只要提起在北二路上班,就等于抱上了“金饭碗”,虽然工资跟其他企业差不多,但是企业前景好,职工的福利也全,小到手套、肥皂、工作服,大到房子,应有尽有。
杨师傅的家到工厂骑自行车要半个多小时,每天早晨天刚亮,他就跨上自行车,后座绑着铁饭盒带上饭菜,冲向北二路。他回忆,当时由东到西浩浩荡荡的自行车流会把整条大路堵得水泻不通。
国家负责统购统销的大背景下,工厂的生产运营细化到每天都有规律与详尽的计划。这个时期沈机集团,更让人羡慕的岗位不是一线工人,而是销售。外界误以为东三省的大国企在计划经济年代没有销售人员,沈阳第一机床厂高级工程师李晓岩予以否认。他说,销售一直有,“只不过根本不用跑市场而已。都是按照国家调拨的,有的企业实在买不到,就着急找上面的人批条子,有时候我们就会在生产线上给他们挤出来一个。”李晓岩说。
在沈机集团有一个流传很久的故事:一个其貌不扬农民装扮的人,偷偷摸摸来到车间,工人们以为来找人无人理会。后来这人找到销售,张口就说要买机床,结果被销售一口回绝。
来人指着一排排新组建的机床问,“那不是有吗?”
“不卖,都是调拨的。”
“我拿现金买也不行吗?”说完打开随身带着的公文包,将几捆现金摞在桌上。即便这样也无济于事。
计划经济后遗症
1978年的十一届三中全会吹响了市场经济转型的号角。但一个毋庸讳言的事实是,此后长达数十年的时间里,计划经济仍然长期支配着东北制造业的发展轨迹。尤其对于机床厂这些生产工业母机的装备制造业企业来说,企业的活动范围和资源配置也都由国家来决定。
上世纪90年代初,沈阳三大机床厂的固定资产净值仅为原值的39%,远低于全国工业平均62.6%的水平,20年以上役龄的设备占50%以上。到1992年,随着我国“拨改贷”、“利改税”等政策的实施,以及对外开放的力度进一步扩大,中国机床企业的生产环境急剧恶化。
风向一变,北二路两侧这些计划经济时代的“骄子宠儿”们开始减产、亏损、下岗、转产、被兼并。对于一线工人来说,最直观的感觉来自于工资。整个90年代,十年间,杨师傅的工资基本都在七百元,甚至出现一连几个月开不出工资的现象。往日繁华热闹的北二路上也开始逐渐衰败。每天上班的路上,再也没有了自行车交相拥挤热气腾腾的影像。取而代之的是欠薪、讨薪,纵横交错的横幅。往日热闹的车间,也成了僵尸车间,只剩机器上落着的厚厚灰尘。
北二路上的国有企业群体是另一个小社会。幼儿园、医院、商店都在一个生活圈内,国企像一个大家长,从生管到死。在这里,从来没有秘密,“当时,家家户户讨论最多的就是哪个厂子又倒了,你家有没有人下岗。”“十亿人民九亿商,还有一亿在观望。”这是90年代的真实写照。大多数机床厂退休的工人开始从事小商品贩卖,还有一部分虽然在机床厂挂着职,但基本已不来上班,有时会在外面找些零活维持生计。
1994年,进口机器设备关税壁垒拆除,机床产品的进口关税提前降至9.7%,数控系统的关税降至5%。涌入的进口机床使中国机床企业的生产环境急剧恶化。李晓岩回忆到,不是没有市场,而是产品跟不上市场。在大企业市场有进口机床,而在中小企业市场,一批反应迅速、灵活的“小机床”也在争抢地盘,“当时,在南方一对小夫妻买些零件就可以拼凑出一台机床,成本优势根本不是沈机可以比的。”
1994年,沈机集团被国务院确定为全国百户现代企业制度试点单位之一。在沈阳市政府的主导下,沈阳第一机床厂、中捷友谊厂、沈阳第三机床厂和辽宁精密仪器厂合作发起联合成立股份制公司——沈阳机床股份有限公司。不久后,四家企业合并而成的沈机集团成立。沈阳三家机床厂合并后有了统一的销售公司。机床的买卖中间会有一部分钱被销售公司提走,这样摊到机床厂的成本相比民企而言更高了。
1997年,关锡友成为中捷厂的厂长。当时中捷厂半年发不出工资,与关锡友前后进厂的80多名大学生绝大部分都辞职离厂,只剩下少数几个人。财务告诉他,整个厂子22个账号加起来不到5000块。
其实,拨改贷后每年上亿元的利息也成为无形的成本,牵扯着沈机集团的成本居高不下。李晓岩回忆,“1998年初,一厂根本没有钱了,贷款银行也不借。”
沈机集团的领导为了脱贫脱困,管理层开始指导全集团八仙过海各显神通。这一时期,沈机集团的业务可谓五花八门,卖过冬虫夏草、纯净水,拍过电视剧,搞过房地产。甚至还有领导搞“全民销售”,由工人自己找亲戚朋友卖机床,然后自己给自己发工资。
从1993年到2002年,沈机集团经历了最困难的十年,这十年也被企业内部人士称为“黑暗十年”。
在北京大学政府管理学院企业与政府研究所所长路风撰写的一份关于沈阳机床发展的报告中有详细的数字记载。十年时间里,沈机集团在岗职工数从27000多人缩减到11000多人,同时却没有进过一个大学毕业生和新员工。
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