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当前,我国大多数企业、行业智能制造系统都还处于局部应用阶段,只有少数大企业单项业务信息技术覆盖面较高,关键业务环节应用系统之间实现了一定的协同和集成。大量企业处于工业2.0要补课,有些企业处于工业3.0待普及,有个别企业处于工业4.0要示范。
刚刚闭幕的中央经济工作会议对制造业发展提出要求,指出要推进中国制造向中国创造转变,中国速度向中国质量转变,制造大国向制造强国转变。扎实推进供给侧结构性改革,促进新动能持续快速成长,加快制造业优化升级。
国新未来科学研究院副院长徐光瑞表示,推动中国制造迈向中高端,国家主要可以从三个方向发力。一是深化改革,提高资源配置效率,主要包括提高有效供给、推动科技创新、降低运转成本等;二是市场主导,激发各类主体活力,包括推动国有资本做大做强、支持民营企业发展、加大产权保护等;三是扩大开放,构建国际产能合作平台,包括提升出口质量和附加值、推进自贸区建设等。
一、智能制造系统解决方案发展趋势
据行业专业人士分析,今后国内智能制造系统解决方案将面临三大发展趋势。
第一大趋势:智能制造是一项系统性工程,系统解决方案领域的合作将更加活跃。
智能制造发展具有复杂性、系统性,涉及设计、生产、物流、销售、服务等产品全生命周期,涉及执行设备层、控制层、管理层、企业层、云服务层、网络层等企业系统架构,需要实现横向集成、纵向集成和端到端集成。限于资金投入不足、技术研发周期较长以及工艺壁垒等因素,单个系统解决方案商很难满足各个细分行业的智能制造发展需要,企业间将不断加强协同创新,以强化智能制造系统解决方案供应能力。
第二大趋势:智能制造系统架构将进一步完善,工业软件领域的集成与发展将成为重点。
从企业系统架构来看,国内目前还没有出现能够打通整个架构体系的智能制造解决方案商,但随着技术水平的不断进步,系统解决方案提供商将不断完善架构体系。智能制造系统解决方案主要依托于软硬件产品及系统,实现制造要素和资源的相互识别、实时交互、信息集成。从硬件层面来看,基于成本大幅降低的现实需要,硬件中通用性强的部分将日趋模块化、标准化发展。从软件层面来看,工业软件存在于智能制造的每个角落,智能制造解决方案将更加倚重于与硬件层关系密切的软件部分的集成与发展。
二、我国智能工厂发展趋势分析
当前,智能制造热度高企,石化、钢铁、机械装备制造、汽车制造、航空航天、飞机制造等行业纷纷开始探索建设智能工厂。《中国制造2025》明确提出要推进 制造过程智能化,在重点领域试点建设智能工厂/数字化车间,这必将加速智能工厂在工业行业领域的应用推广。预计未来3-5年,全国将涌现出一批智能工厂。
智能工厂的内涵及建设重点
智能工厂是实现智能制造的重要载体,主要通过构建智能化生产、网络化分布,实现生产过程的智能化。企业基于CPS和工业互联网构建的智能工厂原型,主要包括物理层、信息层、大数据层、工业云层、决策层。物理层包含工厂内不同层级的硬件设备,从最小的基础元器件开始,到感知设备、制造设备、制造单元和生产线,相互间实现互联互通,构建了一个“可测可控、可产可管”的纵向集成环境。在此基础上,形成企业内部价值链的横向集成环境,实现数据和信息的流通和交换。

由于产品制造工艺过程的明显差异,离散制造业和流程制造业在智能工厂建设的重点内容有所不同。对于离散制造业而言,产品往往由多个零部件经过一系列不连续的工序装配而成,其过程包含很多变化和不确定因素,在一定程度上增加了离散型制造生产组织的难度和配套复杂性。企业常常按照主要的工艺流程安排生产设备的位置,以使物料的传输距离最小。面向订单的离散型制造企业具有多品种、小批量的特点,其工艺路线和设备的使用较灵活,因此,离散制造型企业更加重视生产的柔性,其智能工厂建设的重点是智能制造生产线。

智能工厂主要建设模式
由于各个行业生产流程不同,加上各个行业智能化情况不同,智能工厂有以下几个不同的建设模式。
第一种模式是从生产过程数字化到智能工厂。
在石化、钢铁、冶金、建材、纺织、造纸、医药、食品等流程制造领域,企业发展智能制造的内在动力在于产品品质可控,侧重从生产数字化建设起步,基于品控需求从产品末端控制向全流程控制转变。
第二种模式是从智能制造生产单元(装备和产品)到智能工厂。
在机械、汽车、航空、船舶、轻工、家用电器和电子信息等离散制造领域,企业发展智能制造的核心目的是拓展产品价值空间,侧重从单台设备自动化和产品智能化入手,基于生产效率和产品效能的提升实现价值增长。
第三种模式是从个性化定制到互联工厂。
在家电、服装、家居等距离用户最近的消费品制造领域,企业发展智能制造的重点在于充分满足消费者多元化需求的同时实现规模经济生产,侧重通过互联网平台开展大规模个性定制模式创新。

三、智能工厂发展重点环节

随着未来智能工厂发展浪潮的逼近。未来,将有几个行业或者领域迎来发展高潮。

首先是虚拟仿真设计。随着三维数字化技术的发展,传统的以经验为主的模拟设计模式逐渐转变为基于三维建模和仿真的虚拟设计模式,使未来的智能工厂能够通过三维数字建模、工艺虚拟仿真、三维可视化工艺现场应用,避免传统的“三维设计模型→二维纸质图纸→三维工艺模型”研制过程中信息传递链条的断裂,摒弃二维、三维之间转换,提高产品研发设计效率,保证产品研发设计质量。

未来我国应着重突破MBD技术、物理仿真引擎系统架构、仿真模型三个环节。

其次是网络化智能设备。生产设备的智能化程度将在网络化条件下得到快速提升,传统制造模式出现颠覆性的变革,具体表现高度密集的生产设备、生产设备智能化和柔性化制造方式这三个方面。

再次是模块化定制生产。多批次、小产量的生产盈利能力在模块化生产方式下逐渐得到提升,产品日益满足消费者个性化需求,具体表现在模块生产和模块组装这两个方面。

最后是柔性化新型人机交互。人与机器的信息交换方式随着技术融合步伐的加快向更高层次迈进,新型人机交互方式被逐渐应用于生产制造领域。具体表现在智能交互设备柔性化和智能交互设备工业领域应用这两个方面。

未来制造业发展的方向主要是智能制造、绿色制造、国家品牌制造,关键是提升生产效率和效益,拥有具有国际影响力的先进制造技术和品牌产品。

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